Hex Decoder

Instructions. The reason why this is interesting is because 16 is a power of two. Use Hex to Decimal Converter to convert hexadecimal to binary (numbers with base 2) and decimal numbers (numbers with base 10). Converts an array of bytes into an array of bytes for the characters representing the hexadecimal values of each byte in order. Convert a hexadecimaly encoded text into an decoded string or download as a file using this free online hex to text decoder utility. The problem you are having is quite a common one - how to convert a binary number to something called "Binary Coded Decimal" (BCD). Again, nothing to do with ASCII really, but has been requested by a number of you out there. Instructions This calculator allows you to manipulate and decode the fields of a standard 26-bit wiegand access card number. Who needs the Wireshark GUI right; let’s do this at the command line and be grown up about things. How can I decode hexadecimal to text (ASCII)? Here is a simple hex to text chart. How to realize. In addition, you will receive some basic information about this image (resolution, MIME type, extension, size). Essentially, Base 16 encoding is the standard case- insensitive hex encoding and may be referred to as "base16" or "hex". This page contains Verilog tutorial, Verilog Syntax, Verilog Quick Reference, PLI, modeling memory and FSM, Writing Testbenches in Verilog, Lot of Verilog Examples and Verilog in One Day Tutorial. Question: How do I convert a hex color string (e. We crack cases and decode just about anything! Repost …. Steps for using the binary decoder tool: First select the type of data you want the binary code to be converted. ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This program let you encode/decode or encrypt/decrypt your documents in various formats such as: ASCSII, Binary, Base 64, Hex, Caesar Bruteforce, MD5, SHA-1, HTML Entities. WEBINAR: On-Demand. See the API Reference to get started. FAQ: What is this web page primarily used for? Two things. Press button, get result. I write a lot of ad-hoc protocol analysers using Python. Binary (Ascii) encoding. Therefore, you can convert up to 19 decimal characters (max. Emoji to English & English to Emoji translation. Tool to convert ASCII (binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal) automatically. shopping for text to hexidecimal, how to buy text to hexa, purchase hex editor, free binary code, download hex viewer, very high quality hex edit, the best you'll find hex editor download, get it now binary, shopping for ascii ebcdic, how to buy ascii, purchase ascii to ebcdic, free ebcdic, download ebcdic to. Created by Anshul, for fellow linguists and emoji fans. Meet Base64 Decode and Encode, a simple online tool that does exactly what it says; decodes Base64 encoding and encodes into it quickly and easily. The hexadecimal format is suitable as input to PROM programmers or hardware. Hex Color Code Chart & Generator. The MD5 message-digest algorithm is a widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value. The 0x45 value found there in interpreted to mean that the packet is an IPv4 packet and the IP Header length is five(5) 32-bit words (20-bytes) (14-33):. Several other JP1 tools, (IR, RMIR and IRScope), will also decode the long Pronto hex. The idea is to add up all the block of data that is being transmitted and transmit the sum along with the data. Hex to decimal converter and how to convert. About URL Encoder / Decoder. What does ESN Converter do? Enter any ESN (Electronic Serial Number) or MEID (Mobile Equipment Identifier) and we will convert it to every format possible. WEBINAR: On-Demand. Disassemble. PHP decoder. 6, IE7, Opera 10. Interestingly Python allows the representation of the hexadecimal string in two different forms. func Dumper ¶ func Dumper(w io. The ASCII value for a space character is 32. The associative array returned by this page corresponds to the ASN. Right: Encode a number. At md5hashing. This type of encoding is used in PostScript and PDF files. Useful, free online tool that converts hexadecimal values to plain text. Base64 image decoder encoder online - this online tool lets you convert base64 string to image and image to base64 - jpg, jpeg, png, gif, bmp, ico, svg. AES Calculator. The reason why this is interesting is because 16 is a power of two. Digitrax decoders use many different cofiguration variables (CVs) to control the operating characteristics of the decoder. Note that all non ASCII-HEX chars from the HEX box will be ignored. Hex Decoder 5, Head Size 6mm - NOE 7041881 online from NAPA Auto Parts Stores. Supported key lengths and IV lengths 1 You can use only hexadecimal characters, newlines, tabulators and new line characters if you decrypt a string. The following statement uses lower-case letters but produces the same result as the preceding statement:. A hexadecimal color is specified with: #RRGGBB. We cannot show every code page, but have included the more common ones we've dealt with. In this blog post we introduce the “Hexa Payload Decoder Tool”, a tool that is able to process a pcap file and return any decoded characters translated to English. In this quick article, we're going to do some simple conversions between the Hex and ASCII formats. This PEP outlines the introduction of a raw bytes sequence type. length; char[] out = new char[l << 1]; // two characters form the hex value. Just place your packet dump in the box above and hit 'Decode Packet'. J June 1996 MODICON, Inc. base16 encoder / text 2 hex. The hexadecimal format is suitable as input to PROM programmers or hardware. Computers uses binary system in their internal operations, as they are built from binary digital electronic components with 2 states - on and off. Steps for using the binary decoder tool: First select the type of data you want the binary code to be converted. In a typical use case, the Hex format can be used to write down very large integer values in a compact form. 98% of products ordered ship from stock and deliver same or next day. Enable your Windows application or Web Service to read barcodes from any image file, database, mobile phone camera, scanner or fax. THE unique Spring Security education if you’re working with Java today. Hi , As we already have a 3gpp decoder by wireshark to decode 3gpp messages, I need to call this decoder in my python script to decode a hex dump provided to the program as an input and write the decoded result in a text file. Beware that LoRaWAN packets are binary data, so do not remove leading zeroes. by Markus Kuhn. WEBINAR: On-Demand. Typically, this input string is generated by calling the function HEX_ENCODE. In addition, you will receive some basic information about this image (resolution, MIME type, extension, size). THE unique Spring Security education if you're working with Java today. If you'd like to have the URL Decoder/Encoder for offline use, just view source and save to your hard drive. Use the options window to select byte order of numbers: little endian (Intel: least significant byte leftmost, most significant byte rightmost) or big-endian (Motorola: vice versa). In the right hands, it's a powerful utility that can inspect, compare, and verify files, disks, disk images, memory, and. Enigma Decoder. it is called "DM7442A BCD to Decimal decoder. Decoding it is extremely easy and should take less than a minute. Convert from decimal to hexadecimal with leading zeroes and uppercase: 5. Wireshark can read in an ASCII hex dump and write the data described into a temporary libpcap capture file. I have a hex dump below (this is a Xilinx Ultrascale FPGA but the question is generic), I'm trying to understand where the capabilities start and how to decode the Next Cap Pointers to walk the config space. Online Base64URL decoder Convert Base64URL, Base64 and Hex online to UTF-8 string. This site allows you to encrypt or decrypt any md5 hash, we have our own database with more than 10 million keys, also we look for your hash on 23+ others web sites. FileInsight is a free hex editor from McAfee Labs that runs on Microsoft Windows (download zip file). Figure 7 Symbol groupings and table lookup is performed by groups of five bits. Enigma Decoder. Pls see my earlier post for discussion on OpenSSL quirks. For Coffee/ Beer/ Amazon Bill and further development of the project Support by Purchasing, The Modern Cryptography CookBook for Just $9 Coupon Price. This application encodes and decodes ASCII and ANSI text. Dear guys, I would like to design a HEX to Seven Segment Decoder using K-maps for seven 4-input functions. Meet URL Decode and Encode, a simple online tool that does exactly what it says; decodes URL encoding and encodes into it quickly and easily. I am sending hex values from Arduino to Android over Uart. Instructions. This text is a very comprehensive one-stop information resource on how you can use Unicode/UTF-8 on POSIX systems (Linux, Unix). Typically, this input string is generated by calling the function HEX_ENCODE. FileInsight is able to parse the structure of. It just so happens that hex uses a set of 16 unique digits. Converts an array of bytes into an array of bytes for the characters representing the hexadecimal values of each byte in order. 509 certificates. Hex editor for EEPROM dump editing. x"4" instead of "0100". Hex definition is - to practice witchcraft. Figure 7 Symbol groupings and table lookup is performed by groups of five bits. A hexadecimal numeric character reference. ///// // Decode one hex digit for LED 7-seg display module HexDigit(segs, num); input [3:0] num ; //the hex digit to be displayed output [6. com and see what can i do. What a great little tool by Eric Meyer. Encode text to an hexadecimal/base16 string, as per RFC-4648. I don't have an o/s running so I can't decode pcie using something like lspci (I wish lspci would take input from a file!). Base64 (MIME) Encode Tool. Meet Base64 Decode and Encode, a simple online tool that does exactly what it says; decodes Base64 encoding and encodes into it quickly and easily. Analyse and edit binary files everywhere. String-valued functions return NULL if the length of the result would be greater than the value of the max_allowed_packet system variable. The Hex Workshop Hex Editor is a set of hexadecimal development tools for Microsoft Windows, combining advanced binary editing with the ease and flexibility of a word processor. Number: N/A. An application may define additional functions written in C and added to the database engine using the sqlite3_create_function() API. Helps you convert between Unicode character numbers, characters, UTF-8 and UTF-16 code units in hex, percent escapes,and Numeric Character References (hex and decimal). Just load your hex values and they will automatically get converted to UTF8 characters. As expected, it can perform standard hex editor duties, such as viewing and editing file contents in a hex form, but it also does more than that. Each character is represented by three numbers. Templates may be shared and a list of templates for download is available in our Template Repository. This chart helps you pick a hexadecimal color code from more than 1,100 named colors for use in HTML Web page features. To get special characters to show on an HTML web page, special HTML codes can be used (ascii code or word) and are interpretted by the web browser. Enable your Windows application or Web Service to read barcodes from any image file, database, mobile phone camera, scanner or fax. Supported key lengths and IV lengths 1 You can use only hexadecimal characters, newlines, tabulators and new line characters if you decrypt a string. I am sending hex values from Arduino to Android over Uart. To convert from one number system to another, select the Hex, Dec, Oct, or Bin radio button. If there's an instruction which it can't convert, try converting a similar instruction's hex using our HEX To. The Universal Encoding Tool provides a huge collection of methods for en-/decoding, en-/decryption, conversions and hashing. MIT licensed with consistent, flexible API. There are a few ways depending on the Python version you have on your computer. The coding is the ascii values in hex. With Unicode, each computer character is described by a name and a code identifying it uniquely regardless of the computer medium or the software used. Instructions: Use this tool to convert character strings to ASCII and EBCDIC bytes (in hex), and vice versa. Free online hexadecimal to UTF8 converter. Convert ASCII codes into Normal Text instantly with this free in-browser tool. *Input your HEX string above then enter an offset (optional - useful for branch instructions), select the architecture and click 'Convert'. Base64 image decoder encoder online - this online tool lets you convert base64 string to image and image to base64 - jpg, jpeg, png, gif, bmp, ico, svg. You understand that there the IR LED goes on and off quickly, say at 40KHz, so that the receiver can tell the difference between the IR transmitter and things like sun light, or an electric fire. Hexinator allows you to store all assumptions and knowledge about a file format in so-called grammars while looking at a file. The Game Genie Code Decoder/Encoder will appear, with the Address and Compare boxes filled in. The core functions shown below are available by default. Online Encoders and Decoders makes it simple to encode or decode data. Your hex conversion is correct, but you are NOT looking at a partition table. Binary to ascii text, binary to hexadecimal and binary to octal. A hardware hexadecimal decoder is a fairly complex bit of logic that converts 4 bits into a display segments for displayi. To write each digit in proper hexadecimal notation, convert them using this guide: Digits 0 through 9 remain the same. Make sure there is no extra new line in input box. Hex encoder & decoder. Decoding A Binary File. Usage: Enter HEX in the first box and click the convert button. The code itself is a hex triplet, which represents three separate values that specify the levels of the component colors. Input a nasty looking URL string, and it will make it into something that you can read. Decoding it is extremely easy and should take less than a minute. Use this Certificate Decoder to decode your PEM encoded SSL certificate and verify that it contains the correct information. Useful, free online tool that converts hex numbers to UTF8 characters. What is this site? This site makes it easy to convert hex values to UTF-8 and back again. Once that's finished, it will show all the prime numbers in the text box. Introduction This document describes the hexadecimal object file format for the Intel 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit microprocessors. and decode it by the receiver. Hex editor Click to enlarge UltraEdit is more than just a text editor, UltraEdit also includes a Hex editor mode - sometimes referred to as a binary file editor or byte editor. a tool for encoding text or binary data like images to hex (base16) and vice versa. Introduction to the Intel HEX Class Module. This feature is not available right now. What does ESN Converter do? Enter any ESN (Electronic Serial Number) or MEID (Mobile Equipment Identifier) and we will convert it to every format possible. XVI32: Encode and Decode Numbers. As you type in one of the text boxes above, the other boxes are converted on the fly. r/Decoders: Come one come all! If you have a thirst for mystery and cracking codes, join us. Left: Decode a number. Base64online. Click now to Decode or Encode Unicode text. And, It use space as the delimiter, but you can convert Hex to Base64 without delimiters. And, after storing in string I want to convert it to the hex or I want my array to support values above than 128. The UTL_ENCODE package provides functions that encode RAW data into a standard encoded format so that the data can be transported between hosts. Use this page to decode an image hidden inside another image (typically a. a tool for encoding text or binary data like images to hex (base16) and vice versa. They are a way put alpha transparency information into the hex format for colors. Encoding and Decoding URLs via perl (including decimal to hex conversion). Keep in mind that the sole purpose of the HEX data is to represent a series of ON and OFF times for the IR emitter, and when the IR emitter appear to be solidly ON its is rapidly flashing. DOK-3Modicon Modbus Protocol Reference Guide PI–MBUS–300 Rev. Octo or octal refers to a base 8 numeral system. It was created in 1991. Non-hex characters are skipped over, so you don't have to remove the double quotes or "\x" if you're disassembling a C-style string literal!. Hex string: Note: all characters outside hex set will be ignored, thus "12AB34" = "12 AB 34" = "12, AB, 34", etc. Just import your URL-encoded UTF8 in the editor on the left and you will instantly get URL-unescaped UTF8 text on the right. This is an advanced converter where you can convert between hex, binary, decimal, octal and ascii without even changing form or page. hURL is a small utility that can encode and decode between multiple formats. OID Converter. This online binary decoder tool helps you to decode the binary data to text, decimal, hexadecimal and octal format. The Universal Encoding Tool provides a huge collection of methods for en-/decoding, en-/decryption, conversions and hashing. Hex-Encoding A Binary Value / Byte Array In ColdFusion. Base64 The term Base64 is coming from a certain MIME content transfer encoding. func Dumper ¶ func Dumper(w io. In this quick article, we're going to do some simple conversions between the Hex and ASCII formats. Date & Time functions, aggregate functions, window functions, and JSON functions are documented separately. The conversion process is quite simple: the converter decodes the Base64 into the original data, then encodes it to Hex value and gives you the final result almost instantly. The idea is to add up all the block of data that is being transmitted and transmit the sum along with the data. PHP Decoder | Hex Decoder | Hex Decoder - Decoding Hex, Oct and similars. This page contains Verilog tutorial, Verilog Syntax, Verilog Quick Reference, PLI, modeling memory and FSM, Writing Testbenches in Verilog, Lot of Verilog Examples and Verilog in One Day Tutorial. ⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️ If you searching to check on Ddecode Hex Octal Html Decoder price. -[Voiceover]Let's now try to convert a number from the decimal system to the hexadecimal system. Note: You can also open a file using WinZip's Open toolbar button, or drag and drop a file into WinZip, regardless of the file's extension. Let's say we want to write it in hexadecimal form. In this viewer, you can view , read, and also edit Hex codes. Base64 encoding and decoding. "FFFFCC") to numeric RGB values? Answer: Try this script for hex-to-RGB color conversion: [Looking for RGB-to-Hex?]. How many decimals in a hexadecimal? Definitions and calculation formulas. Converts an array of bytes into an array of bytes for the characters representing the hexadecimal values of each byte in order. Hex encoder & decoder. The problem you are having is quite a common one - how to convert a binary number to something called "Binary Coded Decimal" (BCD). Experience tells me that the data is ASCII text just by looking at it, so you. Free online hexadecimal to UTF8 converter. Convert Hex to String (Hex to Text) Online and Save and Share. hex decoder free download. Quick Response Code (QR code) is the trademark for a type of two-dimensional barcode. No ads, nonsense or garbage, just a hex to text converter. Emoji to English & English to Emoji translation. Octo or octal refers to a base 8 numeral system. Writer) io. Input a nasty looking URL string, and it will make it into something that you can read. Convert between Text and Hex quickly using this tool. Please try again later. Make a programme for Sending an image from one to another. Here's the derivation of the value of another 4-digit hexadecimal number, but this one uses some of the high-order digits A-F: The highest you can count with a given number of digits (in any number system) is the number in which every digit contains the maximum value in the number system (1 in base 2, or 9 in base 10, or F in base 16). Expanded decoding such as binary−to−hexadecimal (one−of−sixteen), etc. Several other JP1 tools, (IR, RMIR and IRScope), will also decode the long Pronto hex. Also note that erroneous packets (including packets that are just LoRa, not LoRaWAN) are likely to show incorrect results without any warning, so specify the secrets to validate the Message Integrity Code (MIC). This operand will compare two bits and will produce one bit in return. ⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️ If you searching to check on Ddecode Hex Octal Html Decoder price. A regular decimal number is the sum of the digits multiplied with power of 10. NET/C# Generate SHA1 hex string for a string encoded as UTF8 - SHA1Util. Both, upper and lower case characters are valid in the input string and can even be mixed (e. World's simplest browser-based UTF8 URL-decoder. The Universal Encoding Tool provides a huge collection of methods for en-/decoding, en-/decryption, conversions and hashing. On the tool below, drag the cursor on the "Hue" selector (right side) to generate the desired base color. Online HEX To ARM Converter. i can't seem to get the syntax right in my php for cleaning a text input with jason_encode prior to inserting it into the database. base64 — RFC 3548: Base16, Base32, Base64 Data Encodings¶. Packet Hexdump Decoder By Sadjad Fouladi / Powered by tshark 396434. FileInsight is able to parse the structure of. Convert Chinese characters to Unicode. 1 IP Header. Hex to decimal converter and how to convert. On-line javascript base 64 to hexadecimal string decoder. Encodes or decodes a string so that it conforms to the the Uniform Resource Locators Specification - URL (RFC 1738). As I work farther into my program I have come across this issue that I cant seem to solve so here it goes. A very common task when working with binary data in C is, converting it to and from Hex. The point of many encryption schemes including MD5 is that it is not easy to reverse. The 0x45 value found there in interpreted to mean that the packet is an IPv4 packet and the IP Header length is five(5) 32-bit words (20-bytes) (14-33):. This standard defines the Base16, Base32, and Base64 algorithms for encoding and decoding arbitrary binary strings into text strings that can be safely sent by email, used as parts of URLs, or included as part of an HTTP POST request. The standard BCD-to-7-segment decoder chip of that era only handled BCD values from 0 to 9. It just so happens that hex uses a set of 16 unique digits. com and see what can i do. Unicode Decoder/Converter. Convert No Man's Sky Portal glyphs to text and text glyphs, share your portal coordinates!. The reason why this is interesting is because 16 is a power of two. Using A, B, and C for the last three digits, list the numbers from 8 to 28 in base 13. Execute by pressing the button(s). Type hex (like "c2 a9 0xe9 81 \xa8 \x00") or UTF codepoints (like "U+a9 U+906f \u043b") above and hit Enter. Go is an open source programming language that makes it easy to build simple, reliable, and efficient software. Text to hex text conversion, Text to binary, Text to octal, hex to text, and binary to text text conversion software, URLEncode/Decode and Base64 Software!. This number contains vital information about the car, such as its manufacturer, year of production, the plant it was produced in, type of engine, model and more. How can I convert from hex to plain ASCII in Python? Note that, for example, I want to convert "0x7061756c" to "paul". The partner encoder is a HexEncoder. Convert No Man's Sky Portal glyphs to text and text glyphs, share your portal coordinates!. Firstly, choose the type of encoding tool in the Tool field. You know when you've been in the business too long when you can read hex-encoded ASCII text --- without decoding it. The hex dump tool will colourise the dump according to the value of each byte. Many email or usenet files (especially originating from Mac OS) are encoded using the BinHex algorithm. Our products include iPhone Cases, Waist Packs, DSLR/Camera Bags, Backpacks, Star Wars iPhone Case, Wallets, Snap Cases, and more. MD5 Decrypt. [ 7 bits default table]. I'm sorry, I don't understand what you want to know. Hexagons are 6-sided polygons. To allow binary data to be transmitted with textual data it must be encoded. String-valued functions return NULL if the length of the result would be greater than the value of the max_allowed_packet system variable. 1 List the octal and hexadecimal numbers from 16 to 32. Introduction. Online string to hex encoder; Additional notes. FileInsight is able to parse the structure of. Hex decimal dump: 11. Packetor is an online hex-dump packet analyzer / decoder. Hex Decoder 5, Head Size 6mm - NOE 7041881 online from NAPA Auto Parts Stores. Meet URL Decode and Encode, a simple online tool that does exactly what it says; decodes URL encoding and encodes into it quickly and easily. Use WinZip in the regular manner to Extract the file to your folder of choice. Since 2001, Processing has promoted software literacy within the visual arts and visual literacy within technology. Text to hex text conversion, Text to binary, Text to octal, hex to text, and binary to text text conversion software, URLEncode/Decode and Base64 Software!. public class Hex extends java. Text and numbers can be encoded in a computer as patterns of binary digits. This chart helps you pick a hexadecimal color code from more than 1,100 named colors for use in HTML Web page features. The partner encoder is a HexEncoder. This widget converts a string of hexadecimal numbers to ASCII, or vice versa. The decoder accepts both uppercase and lowercase values. Convert hex to text and hex decode strings. Summary: Superhero BATCHman defeats evil Hextor and converts hexadecimal to ASCII to retrieve passwords. To decode a hidden message from an image, just choose an image and hit the Decode button. The hexadecimal digits A-F can be uppercase or lowercase. Our software appends the encoder prefix and suffix, which informs the encoder to place the hexadecimal data into the tag. URL Encode and Decode Tool. Did you read the accompanying webpage with a small explanation?. Therefore 64 characters are chosen that are both members of a subset common to most encodings (ASCII), and also printable. The binary code will be decoded to text, decimal, hex or octal data whichever you have selected. Decode Hexadecimal codes and messages from ReBoot: The Guardian Code with this amazing tool, and write Hexadecimal coded messages for your friends to decode. HEX Code is the developer of GS-911, a Diagnostic Tool for BMW Motorcycles. WriteCloser. Instructions: Use this tool to convert character strings to ASCII and EBCDIC bytes (in hex), and vice versa. Chart of 216 web-safe colors with hex HTML codes, fitting on one screen. The problem you are having is quite a common one - how to convert a binary number to something called "Binary Coded Decimal" (BCD). It contains not only static information but how to decode a complete file. It gives developers or very sophisticated end-users low-level access to transaction creation and broadcast. 36A102FE, the string may only contain. Then, using the Input type field, choose whether you want to use a text string as an input or a file. The following example demonstrates the use of a Decoder to convert two different byte arrays into a character array. It was created in 1991. encode("hex. Number of brands: 173, number of models: 1602, number of VINs: 995040. When a keypad switch is pressed - this circuit will reproduce its value in Binary Coded Decimal from. Convert hex color code to RGB and RGB to HEX (Hexadecimal) This free color converter gives you the hexadecimal values of your RGB colors and vice versa (RGB to HEX). What is an MEID number? A mobile equipment identifier, or MEID, is a unique number that identifies a wireless handset. Hex string: Note: all characters outside hex set will be ignored, thus "12AB34" = "12 AB 34" = "12, AB, 34", etc. Useful, free online tool that converts hexadecimal values to plain text. A software hexadecimal decoder is simply a bit of code that converts a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary number. Hex to ASCII text converter. You will find here both introductory information for every user, as well as detailed references for the experienced developer. When performing a binary encoding, you may want to see where each encoded piece started and ends and by using a separator value you can achieve that. PHP Decoder | Hex Decoder | Hex Decoder - Decoding Hex, Oct and similars. SSL Certificate Decoder What it does? It generates certificate signing request (CSR) and private key Save both files in a safe place. and decode it by the receiver. Look at a disk, and sector 0. Stop theft of your JavaScripts! Scramble, obfuscate, and protect javascript code! Use Javascript obfuscation!. Base64 is a group of similar binary-to-text encoding schemes that represent binary data in an ASCII string format by translating it into a radix-64 representation. MD5 is a cryptographic hash function. Another command, od , is quite frequently used in Unix world for octal dump of a file.